In Nigeria, the fight against infectious diseases such as typhoid and malaria has been a longstanding challenge.
With the prevalence of these illnesses, it becomes crucial to identify and utilize the most effective drugs in combating them.
Shortly, we will explore some of the best drugs available in Nigeria for treating typhoid and malaria, shedding light on their efficacy, accessibility, and impact on public health.
Join us as we delve into this critical topic and discover the weapons in Nigeria’s arsenal against these formidable diseases.
The best drugs for typhoid and malaria in Nigeria may differ from those in other parts of the world due to differences in local resistance patterns and other factors.
What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever is a potentially life-threatening infection caused by Salmonella typhi, a bacterial species that is spread through contaminated food, water, or beverages.
Typhoid fever symptoms include high fever, weakness, fatigue, headache, stomach pain, and, in some cases, a rash.
Typhoid fever, if left untreated, can result in severe complications such as intestinal perforation, bleeding, and even death.
Who does typhoid fever affect?
Typhoid fever affects about 12.5 million persons each year. Typhoid fever can affect anyone, but it is most prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water.
Many developing countries are included, particularly in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and parts of Africa. The disease is also more prevalent in rural areas than in cities.
How common is typhoid fever?
It appears that typhoid fever affects an estimated 11 to 21 million people worldwide each year and causes 200,000 deaths.
Typhoid fever is uncommon in developed countries such as the United States, with only about 350 cases reported each year, with 70% of those acquired while traveling internationally.
However, it is important to note that the disease’s exact prevalence may vary depending on factors such as geography, socioeconomic status, and access to healthcare.
What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?
The symptoms of typhoid fever can include:
- Stomach pain
- Diarrhea or constipation
- Loss of appetite
- Fever that starts low and increases throughout the day, and a high fever that can be as high as 103 to 104F (39 to 40C)
What causes typhoid fever?
The bacteria Salmonella Typhi causes typhoid fever. The bacteria can be spread through contaminated food or water, as well as close contact with an infected person.
Once inside the body, the bacteria travel to the intestines and then into the bloodstream, where they cause the disease to develop.
What are the stages of typhoid fever?
The first stage is the incubation period, which lasts about one to two weeks after bacteria exposure. The bacteria multiply in the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver during this time.
The second stage is symptom onset, which typically begins with a gradual rise in body temperature, headache, and malaise.
The third stage of the disease is the most severe, with symptoms such as high fever, weakness, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
In the fourth stage, the symptoms gradually begin to fade, the fever begins to subside, and the patient begins to recover.
However, complications such as internal bleeding or intestine perforation can occur in severe cases. Intestine perforation is one of the most dreaded and common complications of typhoid fever.
The relationship that exists between typhoid and malaria
The relationship that exists between typhoid and malaria is that both are infectious diseases that affect millions of people worldwide.
Typhoid is caused by a type of bacteria called Salmonella typhi, which is usually contracted through contaminated food or water.
Malaria, on the other hand, is caused by a plasmodium parasite transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
Both diseases have similar symptoms such as fever, chills, and fatigue, which can make it difficult to diagnose them accurately.
In some cases, individuals with malaria or typhoid fever may exhibit symptoms that overlap with those of other infectious diseases, such as influenza.
Moreover, both diseases are prevalent in developing countries where access to clean water and proper sanitation facilities is limited, making it easy for the diseases to spread.
To prevent and control the spread of malaria and typhoid, effective measures must be taken to improve sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water.
Malaria and typhoid co-infection
Malaria and typhoid co-infection occur when an individual is infected with both malaria and typhoid simultaneously.
This co-infection can lead to more severe symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose and manage the diseases.
Studies have shown that the incidence of malaria and typhoid co-infection is low but is increasingly being reported in areas where both diseases are endemic.
Best drugs for typhoid and malaria in Nigeria
Which medicine is best for typhoid in Nigeria?
The treatment for typhoid fever varies depending on the severity of the illness, the age of the patient, and whether the strain of the bacteria is sensitive to certain antibiotics.
Commonly prescribed antibiotics for typhoid fever according to NAFDAC include:
- Amoxicillin (augmentin)
- Ceftriaxone (Rocephine)
- Azithromycin (Zithromax)
- Ciprofloxacin (Ciprotab)
Do not self-medicate, complications may abound says NAFDAC
Which drugs can treat malaria and typhoid fever in Nigeria?
For malaria, the recommended treatment depends on a number of factors, including the severity of the illness, the species of the parasitic infection, and the resistance patterns in the local area.
According to NAFDAC, antimalarial medications that may be used include:
- Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs)
- Other drugs like doxycycline or mefloquine.
Do not self-medicate, complications may abound says NAFDAC
How do I take care of myself with typhoid fever?
If you suspect that you have typhoid fever, it is important to seek medical attention right away. Here are some general tips for taking care of yourself if you have typhoid fever:
- Take any medications as directed by your healthcare provider. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to kill the Salmonella typhi bacteria that cause typhoid fever.
- Get plenty of rest and stay hydrated by drinking fluids. This can help prevent dehydration, which is a common complication of typhoid fever.
- Avoid eating solid foods until your fever has gone down and your symptoms have improved. Instead, try eating small, easily digestible meals or drinking soft, high-calorie foods like chicken broth or fruit juice.
- Wash your hands frequently to avoid spreading the bacteria to others. Typhoid fever is highly contagious and is spread through contaminated food or water or by close contact with an infected person.
How can I reduce my risk of typhoid fever?
- When traveling to areas where typhoid fever is common, boil or filter water before drinking, and avoid drinking untreated water from lakes, rivers, and streams.
- Avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables that you have not washed or peeled yourself, as they may have been washed with contaminated water.
- Wash your hands frequently with soap and water, especially before preparing or eating food and after using the bathroom.
When it comes to battling infectious diseases like typhoid and malaria in Nigeria, timely and effective treatment is crucial.
The medications mentioned above have demonstrated their effectiveness in combating these ailments, providing hope for those affected.
However, it is important to note that proper diagnosis and medical supervision are essential before initiating any medication.
Remember, prevention is always better than cure.
Alongside medication, practicing proper hygiene, using mosquito nets, and eliminating breeding grounds for mosquitoes are vital in reducing the transmission of these diseases.
Last Updated on September 14, 2023 by Our Editorial Team